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970.1 

INDIANS 

AT • WORK 




September i , 1934 

A NEWS SHEET FOR. INDIANS 
AND THE INDIAN SERVICE 

OFFICE • OF- INDIAN - AFFAIR S 

WASHINGTON, B.C. 



Collection of Native North American Indian Books, 
Historical Books, Atlases, plus other important au- 
thors and family heirloom books. 
As of 12-31-93 

Earl Ford McNaughton 



INDIANS AT WORK 
CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OF SEPTEMBER 1, 1934 



Volume II Number 2 

Page 

EDITORIAL 1 

Secretary Ickes 1 Letter on Indian School Discipline 5 

Commissioner Collier's Letter on Indian School Discipline ... 6 

Commissioner Collier's Letter to the Klamath Business 

Committee Relating to Corruot Practices V 

The National Resources Board and the Indian Service 9 

Indian Justice and Opportunity ... .By David Parsons, Choctaw . . 11 

A Historical Experiment in Indian Self -Government 12 

The Wisdom of a Former President. 18 

Indian School Murals "by an Indian Artist 21 

News from the Anthropology Course at Santa Fe 24 

Extension of the Navajo Reservation 26 

Comment from the Pield on Circular Letter Number 3011 28 

Indian Naturalist 30 

An Irrigation Project 

Exclusively for Indians By A. L. Wathen 31 

Superficial Notes on Some IECW Projects and Indians 

at Work by the Editor 36 

From IECW Weekly Reports 43 

Fire Fighting Indians 46 



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This is an epoch-making year for the Indians of the 
United States. 

They are approaching their 'place in the sun' . Their 
right to continued racial existence has "been officially recognize 
and defined "by statute. Important continuing appropriations have 
"been authorized for their rehabilitation . ITroni their historic 
status as a subjugated people they have passed into that of in- 
tegrated self- determining units of a democratic commonwealth, at 
last permitted, nay, encouraged, to make their contribution to 
.American culture by developing along the lines marked oxxt by 
their own racial heritage. 

That expectation of a place in the sun has been the 
Indians' for more than a year. Special consideration was given 
their needs in the allocation of funds from the various relief 
projects; invariably these funds were used for the improvement 
of the Indians' remaining land, adding to its productiveness. 
Prom some of the tribes surplus stock, beyond the sustaining 
capacity of the reservations, has been bought; for others more 



89323 

than half a million dollars -is now "being spent for high-grade 
cattle with which to restock the reservations. Five subsistence- 
homestead colonies for various hands are under consideration. Out 
of the submarginal-land purchase funds large sums have been earmarked 
for Indian reservations, old and new. 

This new national interest in Indian affairs goes even 
farther. Many of the departments of the Federal and State govern- 
ments, not directly interested in Indians, are cooperating whole- 
heartedly with the Indian Service, planning with us, making avail- 
able to the Indians the knowledge and experience of their experts. 
The national Resources Board, charged by the President with the 
duty of preparing a long-term, comprehensive plan for the better 
use of the country's land, water, mineral and other reco^rces, lias 
authorized the Indian Service to make a special study of Indian 
acquisition and land use. Since the recommendations resulting 
from this stud/ will probably be used as the basis for appropriate 
legislation by the next Congress, it is important that the person- 
nel of the Indian Service cooperate without limit in supplying 
facts for this study. The recommendations which the national He- 
sources Board will make to the president concerning land acquisi- 
tion for the Indians will probably determine the economic status 
of the Indians for the next fifty years. 

This national good will, this readiness to open purses, 
hearts and brains to the Indian cause, place a heavy load of 



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responsibility on the personnel of the Indian Service and on the 
Indians themselves. Is every one of these interested people shoulder- 
ing this responsibility? Is every single one conscious of the fact 
that the New Deal for the Indians requires readjustment, changes in 
viewpoint and perspective, an appraisal of old habits and values and 
a sincere acceptance of the new orientation? 

We know that the great majority of the personnel is so 
conscious. But there is a minority of grave exceptions. 

To illustrate} Seven teachers have recently been suspended, 
charged with inflicting corporal or humiliating punishment on Indian 
children, in violation of an order more than four years old. Are 
other teachers, in various parts of the country, also guilty? 

To illustrate further: Three members of a tribal council 
have been recalled and debarred from office because, while holding 
official positions of trust and leadership, they accepted pay from 
a lumber company asking for price and other concessions on timber- 
purchase contracts it had with the tribe. Are other Indian leaders 
corrupt? 

Corporal punishment was accepted as a more or less common- 
place mode of discipline for a long time; betrayal of Indian tribes 
by some of their own leaders was practiced during many decades under 
indifferent administrations. Brutality of Government officials 
toward their Indian wards has existed; it went hand in hand with the 
other practice of bribing Indian leaders. 

These practices of the past must remain in the past. At 



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this, the ■burning point in the history of the Indian race, there must 
be enthusiastic, -unselfish, efficient cooperation in the work of re- 
construction. The personnel of the Service, its Indian members in- 
cluded, must not only continue to give best efforts without stint, 
but must assist actively in the elimination of the small minority, 
white or Indian, which will not, or cannot, carry its fair share 
of the burden. And the Indians, especially the Indian leaders, must 
remember that an increasingly heavy load of responsibility will be 
placed on their shoulders, that they must discharge that respon- 
sibility faithfully, efficiently, without fear or favor, if the pro- 
mise of the dawn is to be followed by the full sunlight of the New 
Day for the Indian. 

JOHN COLLIER 
Commissioner Of Indian Af fa i r s 



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SECRETARY ICJQ3S' LETTER ON INDIAN SCHOOL DISCIPLINE 

August 16, 1934 

To Superintendents, Principals And Teachers 
In The Indian Service: 

Conuni ssi oner Collier has called ray attention to a number of 
incidents which indicate that mediaeval forms of discipline have 
not yet been done away with in some of the Indian schools. 

Four years ago, corporal punishment in the Indian schools was 
forbidden by regulation. Since three years ago, at Superintend- 
ents' conferences and otherwise, that order has been reinforced 
through explanation and insistence, and it has been made clear 
that punishments designed publicly to humiliate the Indian child- 
ren were even more intolerable than private beatings. The evi- 
dence supplied me by Commissioner Collier shows that these pol- 
icies and regulations have been flaunted in certain institutions. 

Anong the cares, all of them recent, which have been brought 
to my attention, there are instances of beatings by teachers; of 
Indian children compelled to kneel for many hours on concrete 
floors; of others required to stand for a quarter of a day immov- 
able with their eyes fixed on a dead wall. 

Commissioner Collier has filed charges against five of the 
offenders, and I am on this date suspending these, along with an 
additional two, all of whom will be dismissed from the service 
unless mitigating circumstances can be brought forward by them. 
In addition, I am requesting fuller information with regard to a 
number of other cases. 

The school forces of the Indian Service must understand 
that corporal punishment, and stupid, humiliating punishments of 
boys and girls, will not be tolerated. It is evident that super- 
intendents and principals have not in all ca.-es impressed this 
fact on their subordinates. I realise that you who are intrusted 
with the responsibility of educating young people have a diffi- 
cult task, a?ld that you can perform it well only with the honest 
good Will and intelligent cooperation of the Indian boys and 
girls themselves, their parents, and your coworkers. I want you 
to know that we in the Washington Office are behind you in every 
enlightened and sympathetic effort you make, just as we are 

< 



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against everything that is stupid and. cruel. We expect coopera- 
tion from the young people with whom and for whom you work. A 
school and its disciplines are the joint responsibility of the 
students and the teachers. 



HAROLD L. 1CKES 
Secretary of the Interior 

COMMISSIONER CO LLIER'S LETTER ON INDIAN SCHOOL DISCIPLINE 

August 22, 1934 

To All Field Supervisor.-, of Education: 

Your attention is called to the communiciati on signed "by Secre- 
tary of the Interior, Mr. I ekes, enclosed herewith. 

Of the seven cases of corporal punishment and of humiliating 
punishments therein referred to, all except one were reported by 
one supervisor from a single area of the Indian country. 

It is highly unlikely that abuses of this character exist in 
one area and are absent from all other areas. 

Your attention is directed to this subject with considerable 
earnestness. You tire requested to observe closely and to report 
fully and explicitly any abuses of this character which you find. 
If you hear of such abuses but do not see them, you are instructed 
to investigate, obtain the fa.cts and report them. 

I am fully aware that the essentia.l problem of discipline in 
the schools is one of happy and cooperative morale among the stud- 
ent body and good human nature in the teaching staff, of healthy 
outlets to the energies of the children, and of skill in directing 
behavior into useful channels. Tha.t is the upbuilding task. 

Lut it is, or should be self-evident that so long as physical 
force, and acts of humiliation directed against the children, are 
used, no healthy or happy morale will be possible, nor will it be 
easy for the creative work of modern-minded teachers to establish 
the better standards which we are aiming at. 

The supervisory forces of the Indian Service will be held 
responsible for reporting abuses in the matter of discipline just 
as the teacher or disciplinarian guilty of the abuses will be held 
responsible for committing them. 



(Signed) JOHN COLLIER, Commissioner. 
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COMMISSIONER COLLIER'S LETTER TO TEE KLAMATH BUSINESS COMMITTEE RE- 
LATING: TO CORRUPT PRACTICES 

August 23, 1934 

Mr. Jesse Lee Kirk, 

Chairman, Business Committee of the 

Klamath, Modoc and Yahoo skin Band of Snake Indians, 
c/o Klamath Indian Agency 
Elamath Agency, Oregon 

Dear Sir: 

On May 25, 1934, the Business Committee of the Klamath, 
Mo dec and Yahoo skin Band of Snake Indians, passed a resolution to 

appoint two of its members and . , 

"to assist the allottees to he properly informed as to the signing 
of their allottees' contracts and to act as impartial referees." 

The issue at stake lay between two forms of contract, of 
which one form was more advantageous to various lumber companies, 
while the other form was considered by the Department to be more 
advantageous to the Indian allottees. 

Thereafter, accepted from the interested lum- 
ber companies payment in the amount of 3207*00, and 

accepted from the interested lumber companies payment in the amount 
of $543.00 to explain to the allottees the advantages of the lumber- 
man's form of contract. In addition, , a member of 

the Business Committee, accepted from the interested companies a 
loan of $500.00 and cash in the amount of an additional $335»00« 

Thereupon, these officials severally proceeded to advise the 
allottees, and with greater or less success they procured signa- 
tures to the form of contract desired by the lumber companies. 

Such action by the three members of the Business Committee 
is intolerable from any standpoint of political morality and of 
the standards of conduct which rust be required of the men who 
serve on the Business Committees handling the affairs of Indian 
tribes. Were the action that of members of the council of an 



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incorporated city, or of a State or Federal legislative "body, it 
"unquestionably would be an indictable offense and would in addi- 
tion result in the political extermination of the culprits. 

Article 17 of the constitution of the Klamath, Modoc and 
Yahoo skin Bank of Snake Indians reads as follows: 

"Any officer or member of the commi t tee 
shall be subject to recall from office and 
membership for reasonable cause, under proper 
investigation, by the committee or by the 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs." 

Pursuant to the above-quoted article, I hereby recall from 
office the three members of the Business Committee guilty of the 
acts above described, and direct that an election shall be called 
with secret ballot, at which the enrolled members of the Tribe 
may choose successors to these three men, subject to the final 
approval of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. It is needless 
to state that I would under no circumstance approve any of the 
three men hereby recalled. 

This incident is profoundly distressing to me, as to the 
Secretary of the Interior. It unjustly reflects discredit on the 
tribal councils of all Indian tribes, as well as upon the guilt- 
less members of the Klamath Business Committee, and those per- 
sons who do not believe in the Indian capacity for self-govern- 
ment vail quote it to the hurt of the Klamath Tribe and of all 
tribes. 

I am furnishing a copy of this letter to the three members 
of the Business Committee mentioned herein, and am directing 
Superintendent Crawford to post it at the Agency. 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed) J OHM COLLIER 

Commissi oner 

Approved: 

August 24, 1934 
(Signed) HAROLD L. ICKES 

Secretary of the Interior 



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TEE NATIONAL REoOtERCES 30ARE AMD THE D1DIAK SERVICE 

The National Resources Board has "been created "by the president 
to survey the potential resources of the country and to make recommen- 
dations for some plan of use which -will be most conducive to the welfare 
of the American people. Some eleven different bureaus, offices and 
administrations are collaborating on the land section, of the report 
and one of these of cour.se is the Office of Indian Affairs. 

The fundamental point we are trying to determine for the 
Indian land is whether, taking it reservation by reservation, we 
have enough land to support the Indians on a reasonable standard of 
living. We are considering first on each reservation how we may 
produce the maximum possible productive capacity. 

This will involve among other things land consolidation, 
additional education and credit to make capital investment in live- 
stock, sawmills, and so forth. 

We are going to determine with these changes how much value 
the Indians on a reservation might derive in subsistence and cash from 
the use and development of all their varied resources. We will con- 
sider separately the possible income from agriculture, grazing, timber 
development, mining, oil, water power development, fishing, hunting, 
trapping, harvesting of native plants and berries, handcrafts and work 
around the agencies. Then we will estimate how much it would cost 
in subsistence and cash for all the Indians on a reservation to at- 



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tain a reasonable standard of living. If the value of income producing 
pos sibilities on a given reservation is greater than the value of the 
subsistence and cash required for a reasonable living, then we will 
know that the reservation, with its present resources, is capable 
of supporting it's population. If the reverse is true, then we will 
know that the reservation cannot support its population snd in that 
case we will have to acquire additional land. 

The Indian Office part of the study to be made by the Board 
has been placed under the direction of Mr. Robert Marshall, Chief of 
Forestry. A staff has been appointed and plans are being worked out. 
The President has asked that a report be given him by December 1. 



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IitDTAN JUSTICE MD OPPORTUNITY 
By David Parsons, Choctaw 

So much has "been written and spoken, for and against the Wheeler- 
Howard Bill by the best and most astute minds, both as political and social 
observers, that the writer hesitates to comment, almost inclined to present 
the racial and traditional "silent and cold" exterior. 

The Germ of Growth 



On June eighteenth, 1934, the 
much discussed Indian social and e- 
conomic reform bill became a law. 
Section Sixteen, relative to local 
self-government, is especially 
typical of the optimism and humani- 
tarian sense of social .justice 
Which the present Indian Commission- 
er has expressed "before and since 
his appointment as director of In- 
dian Affairs. This change in Indian 
policy is indeed evidence of a human 
comprehension of Indian justice and 
psychology as yet not common. The 
new policy recognizes the Indian as 
a social human being with great la- 
tent potentialities; not as an ever- 
present, incompetent, docile -,vard. 
The local home- rule feature is an ex- 
cellent concession to the steady 
modern tendency of expansion in gov- 
ernmental aid to the people, which 
admits of wide variation in its ap- 
plication to practical reforms of 
the Indian social order. The homo- 
rule feature alone should obtain 
for the Wheeler-Howard Bill a fair 



trial and, if helpful, a permanent 
governmental program. Innovation 
for the sake of change alone is not 
to be commended but it is equally as 
foolish to oppose all attempts at im- 
provement. It is probably not known 
at this early date just to what ex- 
tent the Secretary of the Interior 
plans to experiment with this section 
of the bill. It is not expected or 
desirable that the program or the 
Indians will endeavor to go so far 
with the experiment of self-rule 
as to raise anew the question of a 
state within a state as in the fa- 
mous old case of Worcester v. 
Georgia. The aim is only to set 
up domestic, self-controlling, 
supervised groups; a theory that 
was so a.bly explained, more than 
a Century ago by Chief Justice 
Marshall in another famous case, 
Cherokee v. Georgia. This new lo- 
cal self-control policy will doubt- 
less extend as far as necessity 
may req-oire, and ability permits. 



11 



The possibilities 

Thus far, the Wheeler-Howard 
Bill truly represents the Indian 
Commissioner's firm conviction that 
the Indians have vast dormant abil- 
ities; that these abilities need 
only to be aroused, encouraged and 
directed to develop the Indians in- 
to a self-reliant i self-sustaining 
and a self-sufficient people. The 
bill is no longer a theory or con- 
viction. It is a law. Soon it 
will be time for the Indians to act, 
to devise various local plans and 
endeavor to put them into success- 
ful operation. 3oth the Commission- 
er and the Indians are on trial. 

It is up to the Commissioner 
to transform the new bill into a 
practical social opportunity. Then 
it is up to the Indians to exert 
themselves to make it a social re- 
ality. Sociologically speaking, 
Section Sixteen may be said to be 
atavistic, for it is a reversion 

A HISTORICAL EXPERIMENT IN 

After a careful study of a 
past Indian experiment in self-gov- 
ernment it is not too much to affirm 
that the opinions of a great many 
critics on the benefits to be derived 
from this so-called Collier experi- 
ment are mostly idle speculation 
based upon personal estimations, ig- 
norance or prejudice, and are not 
therefore necessarily correct de- 
cisions. Generally when Indian his- 
tory is referred to the only thought 
is of war i or a benevolent troaty- 

The Pounding Of 



Thirty-seven years after the 



89323 



Within The Bill 



of policy to a former time when the 
Indians had to do with their local 
problems in their own way. It is 
in this respect, reversion of pol- 
icy, that the bill provides one of 
the greatest opportunities, an op- 
portunity for individual growth 
and personal development, a return 
to conscious self-respect. Too 
much Governmental aid and misdirect- 
ed supervision has already produced 
an unhealthy Indian reliance on the 
Government. This human tendency is 
not confined to the Indian race, 
for ancient and modern history are 
replete with forceful examples of 
this governmental error. In the 
future, according to Section Six- 
teen, the Indians to which it shall 
apply shall have an opportunity 
partially to regulate and control 
their immediate needs with the aid 
of modern methods and science. 



INDIAN SELF- GOVERNMENT 

making council. It is, therefore, 
with a great deal of pride and ad- 
miration that the writer shall 
briefly review an historical exper- 
iment in Indian self-government be- 
yond the customary nomadic tribal 
council form, that the achievements 
herein mentioned may afford some 
light and much inspiration for 
those Indians about to embark upon 
a somewhat similar experience, par- 
tial self-control. 



rational Government 

United States Government adopted a 



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federal constitution, the Choctaw 
tribe of Indians also adopted a na- 
tional constitution. This was more 
than a hundred years ago - "before 
the ravages wrought by the Trail of 
Tears. On August fifth, 1826, a 
general council of chiefs and war- 
riors in their ancient Mississippi 
home adopted their first written 
constitution, defining local self- 
control. This obscure political 
document was signed by Topanohuma, 
David Pulsom and Greenwood Leflore, 
as the district chiefs representing 
the three districts of the then 
Choctaw Nation. The deliberations 
of that august body further pro- 
vided the sun of $450.00 to erect a 
general council house, that the 
laudable experiment in the white 
man's system of democratic self-con- 
trol might have the dignity of a 
permanent meeting place. This was 

After 

It was not in the State of Mis- 
sissippi, however, that the Choc taws 
were destined to erect a super- 
structure upon this newly conceived 
democratic system. Within six 
years most of the Choctaws and 
their new ideal had been trans- 
planted to what is now Oklahoma, 
then Indian Territory. Here, they 
were to be free, according to the 
removal treaty of Dancing Rabbit 
Creek, to continue as a nation. It 
was indeed 'a happy moment when they 
gazed upon that sacred and histor- 
ical document, the original patent, 
a token and further evidence of 
Choctaw ownership in fee-simple of 
the new territory. This document 
was executed in 1842, by President 
Tyler and Secretary of War, Daniel 
Webster. Even today all land titles 



the beginning of a political and so- 
cial experiment in parliamentary 
procedure by a racial group hereto- 
fore not addicted to a formal polit- 
ical system. During the eighty 
years of their political independ- 
ence, the Choctaws changed the or- 
ganic law of their nation five 
times and adopted, five different 
written constitutions. On four dif- 
ferent occasions after removal, they 
were to test their skill in framing 
and adopting organic constitutional 
democratic theory. ' These historic 
achievements were accomplished in 
the years 1834, 1850, 1857, and 
1860. These constitutions clearly 
defined personal and political 
rights. The frequency of these 
constitutional changes represents 
the Choctaws' flexibility, growth 
and desire for improvement. 



The Rem oval 

in this region begin with this his- 
torical document. In this new coun- 
try the Choctaws had freedom of 
thought, initiative and action. So 
it was west of the Mississippi River 
that a great Indian experiment was 
to complete the cycle of growth and 
then wither. 

Upon arrival in Indian Terri- 
tory, their new home, the Choctaws 
set about to reorganize their gov- 
ernment, and established what well de 
serves to be known in history as The 
Choctaw Republic . These Indians 
were an autonomous people with the 
United States Government in the pa- 
ternal background. The protectorate 
relationship between the United 
States and the Choctaw Nation was 
somewhat similar to the American- 



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89323 



Cuban governmental relationship 
known and defined in American his- 
tory and diplomacy as the Piatt A- 
mendment. This bicameral republic 
was to live for about seventy- two 
years, and how well it served the 
needs of its people need not be in- 
ferred from its tragic death. Im- 
perialism or economic penetration 
and extraterritoriality - lack of 
jurisdiction over a non-citizen el- 
ement which exceeded both in num- 
bers and criminality - made justice 
and order an insurmountable goal 
and hastened the demise of a re- 
wblic that might otherwise have 



been a lasting success. 

Like the English colonist com- 
ing to America, the Ghoctaws trans- 
planted to their new home much in 
the way of place names that they 
had known and revered in the old home 
They divided the country into three 
districts and gave them the names 
they had had in Mississippi, 
Apuk shunubb e e . Moo shul a tuob e e and 
Pushma taha , to perpetuate the mem- 
ory of three former chiefs. These 
districts were further divided into 
counties. Their first capital was 
also a Mississippi name, ITanih 
Wayah . 



The Educ ational System 



These Indians erected and fos- 
tered an excellent national school 
system under a national board of ed- 
ucation consisting of three members. 
Soon after their arrival they estab- 
lished day schools, boarding 
schools, Sabbath schools and acad- 
emies. Each year outstanding grad- 
uates of the academies were sent to 
the States at the expense of the 
Choctaw Nation for higher training. 
The Indian students used grammars, 



definers, spellers, readers, Ho?.y 
Writ and hymn books in the native 
language. Newspapers appeared 
throughout the nation printed in 
the Choctaw language. Besides the 
traditional three R's, agriculture, 
domestic science, vocational train- 
ing, language, psychology, history, 
geometry and trigonometry were of- 
fered and instructors were supposed 
to be proficient in three foreign 
language s . 



The Judicia l System 



The judicial system of the 
Choctaw government consisted of a 
County, District and Supreme Court 
in which justice was swift and de 
signed to exert a strong re- 
straining power. Their system of 
justice did not provide for jail 
sentence or confinement. Fines, 
whippings and death by shooting were 
the extent of their penal code. 
The frequent appearance of the nu- 



meral thirty-nine in the Choctaw 
codes as regards the number of 
lashes to be "well laid on the bare 
back" may cause a reader to wonder 
why this odd exact quantity of jus- 
tice. In sum and substance, this 
penal code and the administration 
of justice was simple and may have 
been at times a bit informal, and 
perhaps we might say semi -barbaric . 
Unfavorable allusions like this 



14 



89323 



might have a recial sting were it 
not for the almost free play of 
intellectual "bar "bar ism transpiring 
in the old. centers of European 

The Genera l 

It is from the House Journal 
and Senate Records written in long 
.hand, sometimes interspersed with 
Choctaw, that we may note many col- 
loquial expressions and peculiar- 
ities foreign to the ordinary 
science of government. The opening 
of the Choctaw General Council or 
national legislative body was us- 
ually a gala affair. Great crowds 
thronged the halls and chambers. 
Neighboring tribes occasionally 
sent diplomatic visitors with the 
usual olive branch, smoking tobaccn, 
instructed to cement the bonds of 
friendship and peace. At the con- 
vening of the council a chief might 
be inducted into office. Speeches, 
debates and important legislation 
were the things of public as well 
as official interest. If a quorum or 
majority was not present as did 
sometimes happen at a called ses- 
sion, they adjourned and proceeded 
to compel attendance as follows: A 
lighthorseman, an officer, was de- 
tailed to bring a certain member to 
the Council. Days later the light- 
horseman would return by horseback 
with the member. Doubtless this 
coercion vividly impressed upon the 
Councilman's mind that politics was 
an important matter and that he 
must in the future answer the call. 

However, when the House and 
Senate were organized and ready for 
business they would signify the 
.same by motion that u committee no.- 
'tify the Chief that they were ready 



culture at this particular moment. 
This also refreshes the mooted 
question: !7ho is the savage or 
barbarian? 

Council 

to receive any communication he 
might desire to lay before them. 
The Chief would then notify both 
Houses as to the hour at which he 
would meet them in joint session 
and deliver his inaugural address or 
lay his views before them on matters 
of concern to the Council or nation. 
Both Bouses also met together for 
the purpose of debrte or to- determine 
the election of a chief. The votes 
for Miko Chi to or Chief were counted 
by Justices of the Supreme Court and 
a committee was appointed to inform 
the successful candidate and request 
his appearance. Legislative dis- 
cussions or debates were never writ- 
ten into the records. The Houses 
were small in number and most of 
the members were on some committee. 
In order that the committees might 
work, the Houses adjourned or some- 
times recessed until a later date. 

The opening parliamentary form 
used by the council was: roll call, 
quorum, prayer, reading of the 
journal of the previous day, inter- 
pretation and adoption. Before 
each adjournment they selected the 
hour of meeting for the next day, 
which was the "unusual hour of seven 
or eight in the morning. The House 
Journal and Senate records show 
that occasionally they would meet 
"at the ringing of the bell" or 
"the regular hour". 

Non-members o-' the Council were 
sometimes permitted to address the 



15 



89323 



"bodies. It was customary for the 
candidates for Sargeant -at -arras to 
make speeches in the Senate pre- 
vious to their election by ballot. 

These practices and peculiar- 



ities seem to have been no great 
handicap to this law-making body. 
In fact, they attended to legisla- 
tion with much despatch. Often 
bills passed both Houses and were 
signed by the Chief on the same day. 



Statesmansh ip A Life C areer 



These Indians had much civic 
pride and ability and enjoyed the 
responsibility and participation in 
the great science of politics and 
government. The Choctaw system 
even exceeded the present American 
system in that the elected Chief, 
who had served the constitutional 
limit as the chief executive, was 
not put on the shelf when his tern 
expired. Usually he was elected to 
either the upper or lower House, 
and often remained in politics the 
rest of his life. Thus the nation 
would continue to benefit by the 
continued use of his knowledge and 
experience. 

In this Choctaw Valhalla we 
may find a counterpart for almost 
every great American and condition. 
Wilson Jones, who , it is claimed, 
could not speak the English lan- 
guage, rose from poverty to be probab- 
ly the nation's wealthiest citizen. 
Without the aid of formal education, 
through strength of character and 
industry, Jones attained the cove- 
ted position of Chief. The nation 



produced many orators but Green Mc- 
Curtain, the last elected Chief 
under the old regime, was the William 
Jennings Sryan of the Choctaws, the 
Indian Demosthenes. Coleman Cole 
ranks with the immortal Lincoln be- 
cause of his unlettered, hard-headed 
common sense. The patriot, warrior, 
Chief, Lieutenant-Colonel Jackson 
Mc Cur tain, like General U. S. Grant, 
after a distinguished military record 
rose to be the chief executive of his 
nation. As a counterpart for that 
idealist, statesman and scholar, 
Woodrow Wilson, the Choctaws have 
their sainted Dr. Allen Wright, pro- 
fessorial in appearance and constant 
in racial fidelity. He was a the- 
ologian, minister plenipotentiary, 
statesman, scholar and Chief. His 
inaugural addresses and messages to 
the Choctaw General Council are 
masterpieces in conception, under- 
standing and application of politi- 
cal and economic philosophy to the 
needs of his day and nation. His 
literary form is superb, and Ms 
state papers are ur .xcelled by 
those of the Presidents of the United 
States. 



Records Of Government al P rogress 



It is by a careful and intel- 
ligent study of the constitutions 
and enactments of the General Coun- 
cil of the Choctaw Nation, beginning 



east of the Mississippi river and 
continuing down to the abolition, that 
we are able to note the real prog- 
ress in civil and social matters. 



16 



89323 



The laws were compiled and published 
three times from 1834-19S3, both in 
English and Choctaw, and are known 
as the Fulsom, Standi ey and Durant 
codes. These legal accomplishments 
and some literary legacies of the 
Choctaw government and people, such 
as catechisms, translation of Holy 
Writ, spelling books, grammars, 
readers, hymn books, definers or 



dictionaries, inaugural addresses 
and proclamations of the Chiefs 
will excite the wonder and admira- 
tion of all rational and impartial 
minds. To some people these things, 
may constitute merely a group of 
souvenirs or mementos but they are 
not trifling souvenirs of sentimenh- 
al worth only; they are monuments 
to Indian ingenuity along the road 
of progress in self-government. 



R ebirth Under T 

To reflect on the; white man's 
past historical attempts at self- 
control; the numerous short-lived 
constitutions of the Latin American 
countries, the unsatisfactory pa- 
per constitutional productions of 
that celebrated Frenchman Si eyes, 
the free distribution of -unstable 
republics by Napoleon, and the in- 
ability of the old established cul- 
tural nations of present day 
Europe to maintain constitutional 
democracies, causes an Indian ob- 
server to wonder if the Choctaw Re- 
public was not, after all, a com- 
paratively sound essay at self-con- 
trol both in extent and duration. 
So after hastily reviewing the 



Whe e 1 er - Ifo wa r d Bill. 

three quarters of a century that 
this tribe of Indians maintained and 
enjoyed a parliamentary form of self- 
government, and noting the steady ec- 
onomic, intellectual and social 
progress they made as a result of op- 
portunity and responsibility being 
wide open to them, I cannot but have 
the most ardent racial expectations 
and optimistically vision a progres- 
sive future for those Indians - that 
silent, modest and reserved people - 
that shall serve partially to regu- 
late and control their local affairs 
and bend them to meet modern circum- 
stances as provided in the ep- 
ochal Wheeler- Howard Sill. 



17 



89323 



THE WISDOM 21 A FORMER P RESIDENT 

The following letter, hitherto unpublished, was sent by 
Thomas Jefferson to tne Deputies of the Cherokee Nation in 1808. 
It deals with a subject which is still "being dealt with in Indian 
affairs - the long-deferred hope of self-government: 

My Children Deputies of the Cherokee Upper Towns. 
I have maturely considered the speeches you have deliv- 
ered me and will now give you answers to the several matters they 
contain. You inform me of your anxious desires to engage in the 
industrious pursuits of agriculture & civilized life, that find- 
ing it impracticable to induce the nation at large to join in 
this, you wish a line of separation to "be established between the 
Upper and Lower towns so as to include all the waters of the 
Hiwassee in your part, and that having thus contracted your so- 
ciety within narrower limits, you propose within these to begin 
the establishment of fixed laws & of regalar government; you say 
that the lower towns are satisfied with the division you propose; 
& on these several matters you ask my advice & aid. 

With respect to the line of division between yourselves 
and the lower towns it must rest on the joint consent of both 
parties. The one you propose appears moderate, reasonable and 
well defined. We are willing to recognize these on each side of 
that line as distinct societies and if our aid should be necessary 
to mark it more plainly than nature has done you shall have it. I 



18 



89323 

think with you that on this reduced scale it will "be more easy for 
you to introduce the regular administration of laws. 

In proceeding to the establishment of laws you wish to 
adopt them from ours, and such only for the present as suit your 
present condition: chiefly indeed those for the punishment of 
crimes and the protection of property. Bat who is to determine 
which of our laws suit your condition and shall be in force with 
you? - all of you being equally free no one has a right to say 
what shall be law for the others. Our way is to put these ques- 
tions to the vote and to consider that as law for which the ma- 
jority votes. The fool has as great a right to express his o~ 
pinion by vote as the wise, because he is equally free and equally 
master of himself. But as it would be inconvenient for all your 
men to meet in one place, would it not be better for every town 
to do as we do, that is to say, chuse by the vote of the majority 
of the town and of the country people nearer to that than to any 
other town, one, two, three or more, according to the size of 
the Town, of those whom each voter thinks the wisest and honest- 
est men of their pla.cc, and let these meet together and agree 
which of our laws suit them. But these men know nothing of our 
laws. How then can they know which to adopt. Let them associate 

in t\v.j.v '.oa-.eil our beloved man living with them, Col, Meigs, 
I 

and ne will tell them what our law is on any point they desire. 
He will inform them also of our methods of doing business in our 



19 



'. ' 09323 

councils so as to preserve order and to obtain the vote of every 
member fairly. This council can make a law for giving to every 
head of a family a separate parcel of. land, Which when he has 
built upon and improved, it shall belong to him and his descend- 
ants forever and which the nation itself shall have no right to 

sell from under his feet. They will determine too what • 

punishment shall be inflicted for every crime. In our states 
generally we punish murder only by death end all other crimes by 
solitary confinement in a prison. 

But when you shall have adopted laws who are to execute 
them? Perhaps it may be best to -permit every town and the set- 
tlers in its neighborhood attached to it, to select some of their 
best men, by a majority of its voters to be Judges in all differ- 
ences, and to execute the law according to their own judgment. 
Your council of representatives will decide on this or such other 
mode as may best suit you. 

I suggest these things my children, for the considera- 
tion of the upper towns of your nation, to be decided on as they 
think best, and I sincerely wish you may succeed in your laudable 
endeavours to Save the remains of your nation by adopting indus- 
trious occupations and a government of regular law. In this you 
may always voly on the counsel and assistance of the Government 
of the U. S. - deliver these words to your poor- la in my na:io and 
assure them of my friendship. 

( Signed) 

Jany. 9, 1808. (9) Th. Jefferson 

20 



89323 



INDIAN SCHOOL MORALS BY AN INDIAN ARTIST 
The picture on the following page is one of three 
panels done "by Waano G-ano , Indian artist living in California. 
The panels were executed for the dining room at the Sherman In- 
stitute at Riverside and were unveiled on last Alumni Day. 
Mr. Gano says in explaining his murals; 

"The interpretative panels which accompany the murals, 
will in all probability give to Mr. Collier sufficient explana- 
tion of the thought which I have attempted to weave into the 
murals. One or two other things might be noted also. In these 
paintings I have tried to use the tonal qualities of the white 
man together with the symbolism of the Indian, much the same as 
an Indian friend of mine - a musician - successfully adapted the 
songs of his people to the use of his Indian orchestra. This 
is especially true of the sun and rainbow. Here I have tried to 
create the effect of the sun through all of its many transitions, 
from sunrise to sunset. In the legends and myths of the lake 
people (Chippewas) I have heard the legend of the spirit flowers 
which form the rainbow bridge over which the spirit of the Indian 
passes on his way to the eternal world of harmony or so-called 
Happy Hunting Ground; thus the elaboration upon the rainbow - that 
it might have additional importance beyond that which is imparted 

21 



89323 

to it, here in the Southwest. 

"The idea of the geometrical figures was inspired "by the 
various geometrical designs found on old pieces of wampum, "basketry, 
pottery, head and quill work and on blankets of native craftsmanship." 

The panel shown on the opposite page is called Invocation. 
The other two panels are called Protection and Ambition. The first 
shows an Indian in the act of shooting an arrow. The second shows 
the flight of an arrow, with a warrior being carried on the weapon. 

The interpretative panels to which Mr. C-ano refers are 
explanations of the drawings, done in letters designed in harmony 
with the paintings. 

$ $ * ♦ $ * sfe $ H« $ * • :|e $ * 

The Cover Design. The cover design of this issue of INDIANS 
AT WEK wa.s sent the office by Louis Spear, Indian artist at tho 
Santa Fe School. 



23 



89523 

lvBWS MOM. THE AIITK30P0I0GY COURSE AT SAHTA PE 

An account of Dr. Ruth Underbill's course in anthropology 
for Indian workers at the Santa Pe Indian School appears in the 
Santr: Pe Hew Mexican as follows: 

"A number of special lectures have been given during 
the course in anthropology which is being held this summer at the 
U. S. Indian school for university credit. Visiting professors 
and others have spoken on the particular topics of anthropology 
which, hold their interest. Those who have given one lecture 
each at this summer school are: 

"Dr. Sylvanus Griswold Morley of Carnegie Institute, 
who gave a resume of the growth of culture in America since its 
very "beginnings and the influence of corn on the lives of the 
first residents of America, the Indians. Dr. Morley' s talk was 
brillant and entertaining and was highly appreciated by instruct- 
ors and students at the school. 

"Dr. P. 3. D. Aborle, M. D. , of Yale University who 
spoke on "Health Problems Among the Pueblos." 

"Dr. E. P. Castetter of the University of Hew Mexico 
lectured on "Ethno-lHology , " the study of the plant? and animals 
used by the Indians for medicines, dyes, food and other things. 

Dr. L. P. Tireman, head of elementary education at the 
University of Hew I.iexico and head of the San Jose training 
school, ? jtured on the bilingual question not only among the 



24 



89323 

Anglos and Spanish "but among the Indians and Spanish of New Mex- 
ico. Dr. Tireman studied this question for many years not only 
here "but also in Europe with the hope of its practical applica- 
tion in his work in Hew Mexico. 

"Dr. Morris Opler, Ph. D. , University of Chicago, 
told of the ethnological research which is being carried on ex- 
tensively among the Apaches of New Mexico, which include the 
Mescaleros, Jicarillas and Chirachuas. 

"Further special lectures will he included in the 
course which in continuing each morning at the school under the 
direction of Dr. Ruth M. tfiiderhill of New York." 

The New Mexican also reports that more than seventy 
students are to.kirg Dr. Underhill ' s course. The faculty includes 
Miss Mabel Morrow, teacher of arts and crafts at Santa Fe School, 
and Miss Dorothy Dunn, teacher of art at Santa Fe. 



25 



89323 



EXTENSION OF THE NAVAJO RESERVATION 

In the past, various means have "been attempted toward 
acquiring additional land for the Navajo Indians. One of the 
means which was put into effect subsequent to 1911 was the allot- 
ting of 160 acres of public domain to qualified Navajo s living 
off the reservation. Approximately 6,000 of these allotments were 
ma.de and approved, stretching from well up into the Blanco Canyon 
country north of Pue"blo Bonito in San Juan County, thence south and 
westward of the existing reservation into Apache County, Arizona. 
A number of Indian homesteads on the public domain were also made. 
The making of these allotments and homesteads, while affording some 
relief to the Indians, did not solve the situation for the reason 
that it created continuous conflict with white homesteaders and 
white stockmen who had "been accustomed to using the public range; 
.also, the fact that Federal or tribal funds could not be used to 
develop water on the allotments retarded solution of the matter. 

During 1918 Congress enacted legislation prohibiting the 
enlargement of any Indian reservation in Arizona and New Mexico 
from the public domain, except with the consent of Congress. This 
legislation added almost insurmountable obstacles to the then diffi- 
cult situation, for the reason that it precluded withdrawing any 
public domain for permanent addition to the reservation by executive 
order. During 1921 Congress passed exchange legislation, effective 
in three counties in New Mexico contiguous to the reservation, which 
had for its aim the exchange of Indian and white-owned land to the 
end that the interest of each would be blocked out in solid contigu- 
ous areas. This was desirable for the reason that the Indian allot- 
ments referred to above were interspersed with lands in private owner- 
ship originally the property of the Santa Fe Pacific Railroad Company, 
which had been granted each alternate section of public land for a 
distance of 20 miles on each side of its right of way, plus an 
additional 10-mile indemnity strip. It was not until recent years 
that advantage was taken by the Railroad Company and others to 
effect exchanges and consolidations under this act. 

During the years 1927 and 1928 an attempt was made to con- 
tinue making allotments to Navajo Indians on the public domain. A 
number were made and approved, but through local, political pressure 
the work was soon dropped. The need of the Indians for additional 
land, however, continued to grow more acute, and during 1931 a study 
was made in the field as to what our- objective should be, and certain 
definite conclusions were reached. These conclusions were to the 
effect that in lieu of mailing allotments, certain new exterior 
boundary lines should be established covering into the reservation 



26 



89323 



as tribal land all privately-owned and all public land within the 
extended lines. Three progressive steps to this end were neces- 
sary, the first of which was the addition to the reservation of 
the Palate strip in Utah consisting of approximately 500,000 acres. 
Secondly, the extension of the reservation in Arizona involving 
approximately 1,000,000 acres. Thirdly, the extension of the res- 
ervation in New Mexico, for the purpose of covering in the allot- 
ments made to individual Indians, together with the exchanges made 
under the 1921 Act and the purchases made with the Navajo tribal 
funds. To date, two of the steps have been accomplished by act 
of Congress. Namely, the extension of the boundary in Utah and 
Arizona, leaving for final action the extension in New Mexico. 

The extension of the boundary in Arizona was accom- 
plished during the past session of Congress, as embodied in the 
Act of June 14, 1934 (Pub. 352). This act, among other things, 
authorizes exchanges of privately-owned lands with the new 
boundaries defined therein to the end that the large private 
owners will relinquish their holdings within the extended line 
to the Indians and make lieu selections from the available public 
land outside of the new boundary line; also, certain privately- 
owned lands will be purchased for the Indians. 

Regulations governing exchanges under Section 2 of the 
Act have been promulgated, and will be put into effect shortly; 
and it is anticipated that within the next four months, at the most, 
tribal title to all lands within the extended aria in Arizona will 
be complete. 

As to the third step, namely, the New Mexico boundary ex- 
tension, a bill for that purpose was passed by the Senate during the 
last session of Congress and was very close to consideration by the 
House when that body adjourned. It is confidently expected that the 
New Mexico boundary extension will be approved by the next session of 
Congress. It has received the endorsement of the local white citizens 
except a very small minority group. Luring a conference had with 
the State Land Commissioner at Santa Fe during the early part of this 
month, it was indicated by him that he was in favor of and would 
support the Navajo -New Mexico boundary extension bill. 

These land extensions to the Navajo s do not solve the prob- 
lem but merely will help alleviate an acute situation. Constant 
thought must be given to solving the matter as it is a foregone con- 
clusion that no additional lands can be obtained for these Indians in 
the three States above mentioned upon completion of the legislative 
purchase exchange program set out above. 



J. M. Stewart, 
Chief, Land Division. 



27 



89323 



C0MM5BT F ROM THE FISLP gfi Cli^ULM L3TT3R 350gU3R 3011 

The following arc some of the comments which have "been 
received from tho field on the circular of -July 14, relating to 
the coordination of Indian Office servicer,. 

"Your circular letter I T o. 503.1, dated July 14, setting 
forth a statement of new Indian Service policies, has been re- 
ceived. 

"I want you to know that I honestly and truly appreciate 
the action that you have taken as I believe that it will |iVe the 
local administrators the authority, confidence, and "backing they 
have needed from the Commissioner's Office for some time. 

"This is in line with the recommendations made "by the 
Superintendents at the Social Workers » "Conference held in Kansas 
City recently. 

"You have also set out very clearly the duties and re-^ 
sponsibilitios of ail concerned which will eliminate friction and 
bring about more harmony in building programs that will meet tho 
needs of each Indian jurisdiction, which is satisfactory to the 
Indians." P. W. Daniel son, Superintendent, Pawnee Agency. 

"We consider this letter one of the most important ever 
received in the field and we are going to treat it accordingly. 
The third and fourth paragraphs on page one under "Foreword" con- 
tain some of the most pertinent and important points that it nas 
been my privilege to read in my long experience in the Indian 
Service, and I assure you that if these can be carried out ^ as set 
forth they will go a long way toward facilitating cooperation be- 
tween the central and the field offices and clear up many things 
which have been heretofore often misunderstood. 

"We are glad to have this circular and conies will be 
furnished to the various departments of this jurisdiction, as 
well as to the Councils of the different tribes; and I look for 
much improvement all along the line in Indian affairs due to the 
promulgation of these policies." 2. G. Court right, S^ecjhal Agent 
IS Qz-Lz&.t Winnebago Agency . 

"This is to acknowledge receipt of Circular No. 3611, 
setting up the new Indian Service policies, and to submit that I 
personally, as a Superintendent, am fully in accord with the pur- 
port thereof. 



33 



39323 



11 1 have had one croup meeting in which the Circular was 
discussed in its various aspects. Heads oi departments were im- 
pressed with the added responsibility, or, perhaps I should say, 
with the idea that they are to he made to assume the responsibility 
of their position; that there are to he no alibis; that there must 
be a cordial cooperation and unrestrained exercise of professional 
ability, and an unhampered field of operation and an opportunity 
for Field and Agency specialists to map out their own program on 
their own initiative, and that they mast stand or fall with or 
without the Superintendent , on their judgment and on the efficiency 
with which they carry out their particular job." W. 3P. Di ckens , 
Sup 3 r i n t e n de nt , Cheyenne Agency. 

The following letter has also been received from a man 
keenly concerned in Indian affairs, but not officially connected 
with the Indian Service: 

"I have read your Circular Letter Ho. 3011 dated July 
14, 1934, with the keenest of interest. I congratulate you most 
heartily upon this very clear and perfectly fair stat '.it of ad- 
ministrative and service functions and relations both in YTashing- 
ton and the field. It has been received most favorably by the 
field men who have read it and mentioned it to mo. 11 



29 



89323 



INDIAN ■JAI'UR&IST 
Over in the Cherokee hills i? a Cherokee fullblood woman, a 
Tulsa University graduate, who has, at least for herself, solved the prob- 
lem of supplementing the farm income without any initial outlay of funds. 
Her scheme is so unique and yet so practical that it is well worth pass- 
ing on to others, for it can easily be adapted to other regions. 

Two D o£s and S ome 3u£ia^ 



Mrs. Anna Gilliland' s resources 
for her work are two dogs, some bur- 
lap and a few farm tools. She is a 
woman who thinks and acts upon her 
thoughts. Realizing that the wild 
growth of her hills was rapidly 
disappearing, she hit upon the plan 
some years ago of conserving the 
vines, shrubs and flowers, by going 
out after specimens and, after ac- 
quainting herself with their likes 
and dislikes as to shade, soil and 
water supply, bringing them in and 
planting them in suitable suots in 
her yard. The dogs are used to spot 
the snakes that infest the hills, 
and are her sole protection on the 
long hikes she makes to find the 
choicest plants; digging them out of 
the ground she wraps their roots in 
the burlap, thus not allowing the 
roots to dry before they are trans- 
planted. 

Azalea, redbud, dogwood, wild 
syringa, wahoo (first cousin to bit- 
tersweet) , bittersweet, shooting 
stars, columbine, delicate iris so 



like an orchid, these are some of 
the beauties she brings in. She 
is serving her State in caring for 
and preserving its wild growth- 
but there is a financial side to 
this work, for Mrs. Gilliland 
fills orders for these plants. 
She is very conscientious; plants 
sent by mail or delivered in person 
are moist, well packed and guaran- 
teed to live. If they are not so, 
she replaces them. She places her 
price on them - it takes work to 
go out in those hills and dig up 
a bittersweet plant. However, Mrs. 
Gilliland, with her deliveries of 
plants, adds all necessary in- 
structions as to location, shade, 
water, and so forth. 

Once a customer, always a cus- 
tomer seems to be a fact in her 
case, for people become fascinated 
with her products - wood violets 
and those lovely things that can- 
not be had from nurseries. With a 
fascinating vocation, Mrs. Gilliland 
has combined financial success. 



30 



89323 



M IRRIGATION PROJEC T EXCLUSIVELY FOR IITDIAh'S 
By A. L. Wathen 
Director of Irrigation, Indian Service 



The Walker River irrigation project, at present under 
construction, will benefit an all-Indian population. Unlike certain 
other Indian Service projects, it will not serve a mixed grouping 
of the two races, hut will he for a population of Indians alone. 
An account of the undertaking follows. 

The Land and The People 



The Walker River project on 
the Walker River Reservation is lo- 
cated in townships 12 to 15 north, 
ranges 26 to 29 east, Mount Diablo 
Meridian, Mineral County, ITevada* 
It comprises an area of approxi- 
mately 10,280 acres of river bottom 
lands, 10,060 acres of which have 
been allotted to the Faiute Indians 
in twenty-acre irrigable allotments. 
The land lies along both sides of 
the Walker River and varies in 
width from one-half to four miles, 
extending in a northwesterly di- 
rection from Walker Lake for a dis- 
tance of approximately twenty-four 
miles up the Walker River. The 
soil varies in character from a 
fine river silt, silty and clay 
loams, to sandy loams and coarse 
sands. Contrary to the opinion of 
irrigation engineers in the early 
reports on the project, the soil 
has proven very fertile, and, with 
ample water for irrigation, pro- 
duces excellent crops of potatoes, 
corn and alfalfa. 



The Indians of this reservation 
exhibit considerable inclination 
toward farming, although agricul- 
ture on this reservation has always 
been carried on under serious handi- 
caps. The variable character of the 
river flow from heavy floods in June 
to practically nothing during July 
and August, in some years, has made 
diversion difficult and costly, and 
farming hazardous in the late sum- 
mer because of insufficient water. 

The attitude and patience of 
the Indians on this reservation are 
to be commended. They have shown 
great forbearance in attempting to 
cultivate their lands under the 
variable and uncertain water sup- 
ply conditions of the past. The 
location and favorable markets for 
farm produce combined with soil 
fertility and climatic conditions, 
make it possible under normal agri- 
cultural conditions to realize sub- 
stantial profits from irrigated 
farming. These Indians have demon- 



31 



89323 



strated their ability in this in- 
dustry, and with an adequate water 



The F.7A Grant And 



The need for storage to hold 
flood waters for use during the lat- 
ter part of the irrigation season 
was recognized for o. number of 
years, increasingly so, as the ir- 
rigable area became more widely 
utilized. The necessary funds, 
however, were not made available 
until the Public Works Administra- 
tion acted favorably upon our 
application for $130,000 with which 
the urgently needed storage dam and 
reservoir could be constructed at 
one of the several available sites. 
Subsequent engineering investiga- 
tions, after the funds had been made 
available for expenditure, indicated 



supply guaranteed will undoubtedly 
make rapid progress toward the 
full development of the project. 

the Presen t Work 

that the site tentatively selected 
(and upon which was based the esti- 
mate of funds for the construction 
of the dam) was not feasible be- 
cause of insecure foundation con- 
ditions. The dam site finally se- 
lected is known as the Weber site. 
A study of the available reports 
indicated that a reservoir could 
be formed at this site, having an 
estimated capacity of 10,000 acre 
feet, by the construction of a' 
dam in the Walker River approxi- 
mately 10 miles northwest of 
Schurz, Nevada. It is estimated 
that the project as now located 
and with the increased storage 
capacity will cost an additional 
$25,000 or a total of $155,000. 



ftfcmth By Month 



Construction of the Weber Stor- 
age P.e servo ir was commenced on Sep- 
tember 21, with a crew of 54 men, 
42 of whom were Indians. The dam 
is of the rolled filled type with a 
diversion tunnel and emergency 
spillway. Operations were centered 
on excavation of the north abutment 
of the cutoff wall where it was 
found necessary to remove a compos- 
ite of river sand sifted with quick- 
sand, replacing it with clay. Seep- 
age water ^resented quite a serious 
problem and it was necessary to op- 
erate centrifugal pumps twenty-f our 
hours a day as well as the driving 
of sheet piling to combat this 
feature. 



Weather during the month of 
January was exceedingly mild with 
not a single severe storm to retard 
the work. Lack, of proper equipment, 
however, did impede progress to a 
certain extent during January but 
there has since been received and 
placed in operation a one-half yard 
cubic capacity dragline and shovel 
excavator. During January it was 
necessary to suspend operations on 
the outlet tunnel so that addition- 
al men would be available for the 
construction of a diversion chan- 
nel along the north abutment of the 
cut-off wall where considerable dif- 
ficulty had been experienced in a 
sealing off seepage waters. 



32 



89323 



A small coffer darn, constructed 
with corrugated metal end wood 
sheet piling, which was jetted and 
forced to the depth of hardpan* was 
"built along the south end of the ex- 
cavation for the cut-off wall. This 
proved to he an effective method 




A. Placing Steel For Intake Works At 
The Vfeber Dam 

for sealing off this water. Excess 
water was expelled with the centri- 
fugal pumps. This excavation was 
backfilled with an approximately 
fifty per cent clay and gravel fill 
to the desired elevation of the di- 
version channel, which crosses at 
right angles with this portion of 
the cut-off wall. The fill was 



placed in six-inch layers and com- 
pacted with the aid of a tractor 
and a sheep sfoot roller, together 
with hand operated tamping bars. 

As soon as this portion of the 
abutment was completed, the diver- 




B. Intake Works - Weber Dam 

sion channel was blanketed with a 
water tight material, for fifty 
feet on each side of the cut-off 
wall. The river was then diverted 
from its natural course through the 
channel. 

During February weather condi- 
tions continued mild and favorable 



33 



89323 



for construction operations. Prog- 
ress on the work, however, was 
considerably slowed up, as foe to 
the extremely rnild weather condi- 
tions the Indian farmers employed 
on thp work were encouraged to take 
time off for their spring plowing 



miles long -was constructed to short- 
en the hauling distance for freight 
and supplies by sixteen miles. A 
water tank with an approximate 
5,000 gallon capacity was placed on 
a twenty foot tower And connections 
made to a supply well and centrif- 




C. The downstream T 

and preparation of land for seeding 
of grain. However, the cut-off wall 
adjoining the north abutment, the 
diversion channel and coffer dam 
were completed, after which opera- 
tions were resumed on the outlet 
tunnel and the first G5 feet com- 
pleted. At this point a fault zone 
was encountered - the material in 
this area proved to be somewhat 
dangerous for underground work, and 
inasmuch as the over burden was com- 
paratively light the excavation of 
the remaining portion was completed 
with a dragline in an open cut. 

A road approximately four 

The Stat us 
To date favorable progress has 



e Of The Weber Dam 

ugal pump. The tank is centrally 
located and will supply wa.ter for 
various purposes. 

Noticeable progress was made on 
the project during the first two 
weeks of March due to th» acquisition 
of another one-half cubic yard drag- 
line. Operations were concentrated 
on the cutlet tunnel which has been 
completed. It has a total length of 
133 feet, a diameter of six feet and 
a concrete lining with a minimum 
thickness of ten inches and a total 
capacity of 890 cubic feet of water 
per second. 

At pr c sent 

been made on the Weber Dam, thr 



34 



89323 



chief features of work being the 
construction of the gate house 
structure and intake, works, and the 
. placing of embankment in the main 
dam. Setting of all four gates lias 
been completed, and the water was 
diverted through the tunnel on July 
17, 1934. Photo (A) shows steel 
being placed for intake, while 
photo (B) shows completed intake 
works carrying the diverted river 
flow, and partially completed gate 
house structure. The diversion 
trench, which has been in use since 
last January, has been backfilled 
to the present elevation of embank- 
ment , 



Photo (C) shows a portion of 
the riprap on the downstream toe 
across the former river channel. 

With the river now being di- 
verted through the tunnel, the 
embankment has been carried across 
the entire width of the former 
river channel to an elevation of 
4188, which makes it possible to 
store approximately one thousand 
acre feet of water, which is now 
being released from upstream reser- 
voirs to give relief to the farmers 
in the Walker River area. This 
water will be released in small 
quantities from the reservoir to 
aid all the farmers in saving as 
much of their crops as possible. 



Indians Now At Work 
On July 9, 1934, two six-hour shifts were put into operation, 
and on July 23, 1934, a third shift was started in order to increase the 
daily yardage being placed in the embankment. With the increase in labor, 
approximately fifteen hundred cubic yards are being placed daily for the 
embankment . 

The expend! tiires to July 30, 1934 were as follows; 

Labor $36,034.22 

Purchases 29,716.43 

Miscellaneous Expense 2,5 64,93 

Total Disbursements $58,315.58 

Of that amount expended for labor, the Indians had been paid 
$25,416 for 8500 men days of labor. The whites had. been paid $10,618.22 
for 3000 man days of labor. 

There are now approximately seventy-five Indians employed on this 

project. 



35 



89323 



SUPERFICIAL NOTES Oil SO! 3 IEOW PEOJE 



August 1, Flying east of 
Phoenix about six in the morning. 
I am of the opinion that colored 
post cards and the National Geo- 
graphic Magazine should "be ex- 
pressed. The country looks too 
like those pictures. One does not 
come out here to see thorn. 

In Globe at six o'clock in the 
evening. It rains. I go into a 
drug store for orange juice and the 
Sky is clear. I drink the orange 
juice and by that time the curbing 
has disappeared. There is nothing 
but rain in the world. The world 
is wrapped in rain, strangling 
twisted sheets of rain. It be- 
sieges the drug store and comes in 
under the sill and around the win- 
dows. Ten minutes and the sun is 
shining. 

I take a car for San Carlos, 
Three miles out of Globe the desert 
is dusty, distracted with a blowing 
dust, as if no rain had ever fallen. 
Certainly none has fallen here. 
Then the dry bed of a wash puts on 
a show. A wall of water races down 
it. On its forefront it carries 
high and heaving - dead bodies of 
cattle, killed that morning by 
their owners, killed to save them 
from the drought. I nave heard of 
drought in Washington. I meet it 
now. 

For three hours I wait for the 
water to go by. A curious experi- 
ence, to an Easterner, waiting for 
a stream to go by, as if it were a 
procession. Streams do not "go by" 
in the East. They are part of the 



.AND INDIANS AT WORK BY THE EDITOR 



country there, fixed in the land- 
scape forever. When finally we 
have crossed and proceeded fifteen 
miles, we come to the bed of this 
same wash a second time. Here it 
is perfectly dry. I am told that 
the water has all run into the 
ground. I believe it. I find it 
easier to believe than to reason. 

August 2. At Sail Carlos A- 
gency office, listening to discus- 
sions between Indians and Superin- 
tendent as to how to save the cat- 
tle from the drought. In the 
afternoon I visit Mrs* Sippi , a 
heroine of mine since the INDIANS 
AT WORN of November 1, 1933. She 
is at her little farmhouse near 
the Agency, just come back from 
her round of visits to IECW camps, 
where she instructs the women in 
home betterment and child care. 
Her car is parked in the farm- 
yard; her shotgun is still on 
the front seat. She is resting 
or. a bench under the tree. A 
great woman, this -benign, calm, 
detachedly observant. I prefer 
not to introduce myself, but point 
to one of the several dogs. 
"Cash?" I say, remembering him 
from his picture i n the Washington 
Office. Mrs. Sippi falls into my 
mood. She does not ask me who I 
am. She does not ask me anything. 
"Sit down", she says, dusting me a 
chair. I -.it down. (A lesson for 
a hostess. ) 



How fine an intermingling of 
the old and new. Mrs. Sippi, who 
as a cnold was with Geronimo's 



36 



89323 



band, plainly looks toward ths fu- 
ture of her people. "I teach all 
the women," she says in her diffi- 
cult English, "make things nice - 
clean - pretty. 11 

The English does not carry the 
depth of her meaning. What sne 
tells me is that she tears, insofar 
as she can, the life of all her wo- 
men in her mind, in her heart, on 



Mrs. Sippi smiles indulgently. 
"Maybe not so clean," she murmurs. 
I feel somehow rebuked* Balance is 
not easy to keep when one is out of 
one's own country. 

August 3. Driving over the 
reservation with Forest Supervisor 
Allen and IECW Supervisor Cornwall 
on the way to see IECW projects and 
camps. I learn something about 




Indian Blacksmith And Smithy In The Woods, Where They Made Telephone Poles Into 

Pipe Eor Spring Development. IECW Project, San Carlos 



her shoulders. She will lift them 
up to progress, not just lead 
them, but lift them. I look at her 
powerful, peaceful face. It is 
turned toward tho sun. Like many 
powerful heads, hers could be 
cruel, if Mrs. Sippi were not so 
good. A few nights before she 
danced at tho rain dance. Now she 
says, "Maybe they get to like new 
ways, new house, new dress. In 
every camp I talk to women that are 
young. Maybe they learn — ". 

I say, "But the old dress is 
so pretty." 



trails in the Indian country: When 
road building began hereabouts it 
was necessary to bring white sur- 
veyors in to locate the routes. 

"Didn't the Indians know the 
best ways around?" 

It seems that they did not. 
The game had been destroyed in the 
back country. There was nothing 
that they could live by there. 
They were forced to depend on the 
Agency, so, very practically, they 
moved down to its neighborhood. 
The old men who knew the country 



37 



39323 



died. The young generation had no 
need to learn it. How with the 
growth of cattle industry and the 
improvement of the range, the 
people are moving out again. 
Hence the value of the IECW road 
projects - sociological, economic, 
historic . 

This ISSGf rood is good. It 
is not so wide as a "boulevard nor 
so graded as a drive, bat plainly 
it will suffice. It is hard and 
driveable. We go worming down in- 
to canons and climbing straight up 
rocky slopes, and the road remains 
faithful. Mr. Allen who built it, 
using all-Indian crews, tells me a- 
bout grades, fills, costs and so 
on ( which I do not understand) . 

The rain has not helped the 
forage. It ran away too fast. 
But there is hope - we cross a 
ridge and look down at Number 15 
Reservoir. It has been dry since 
it wo. s built. Now, after the 
first considerable rain, it has 
four feet of water in it. Water'. 
I have been so converted, im- 
perceptibly, to this topsy-turvy 
country, that I feet it my person- 
al responsibility to have water in 
all reservoirs. Mr. Allen in- 
spects the dam. It holds. We 
drive on to Number 18. There is 
water in it too. 

Lunch at an IEC1 camo-vi llage - 
the village described by Mr. Corn- 
wall in the August 1 INDIANS AT 
WORK, It is so clean and orderly 
that, with the leafy brush shelters, 
there is something almost dainty 
about i t . 

I learn now the penalty of my 



race, with its long history of 
wrong toward the Indian. These 
Apache people are polite to me, on- 
ly polite, and that a distrustful 
courtesy. I realize that no imme- 
diate effect of personality or man- 
ner could possibly make them like 
me. They do not like me. Only 
long acquaintance co\ild accomplish 
that. With Mr. Allen and Mr. Corn- 
wall, whom they have known over a 
long period, there is a indefinable 
difference in feeling. For a year 
I have been in the Washington In- 
dian Office. I realize now how far 
Washington is from "Indian Country" 

We go on to another camp, pass 
ing a sweat bath on the way . 
Here there is an example of IECW re 
sourcefulness that should be pub- 
lished. In a blacksmith shop set 
up in the woods an Indian smith is 
making pipe for spring development. 
He is making it from old iron tel- 
ephone poles - part of a line e- 
rected by United States troops 
years ago. Supervisor Allen has 
had his IECW crews salvage these 
poles, cut them and thread them. 
They go to springs now - to save 
the precious water. It has been a 
big job. I think about it, and 
somehow, Washington seems even far- 
ther away. 

August 5. With Superintendent 
Kitch, Mr. Allen and Mr. Cornwall 
to see Juniper Tank, an IECW reser- 
voir that has held water since its 
completion last year. With three 
years, says Superintendent Kitch 
and appropriations such as have 
been available since IECW began, 
the reservation can be made drought 
proof. 

In the afternoor to Turkey 



33 



89323 



Tanks to see what was once a "bog.. 
Mr. Allen tells me ab^ut it. 

"We. had to go eighteen feet to 
find water," he says. "Fourteen 
feet down we found the bones of 
cattle that had mired there. Now - 
look. » 

I look. Clear water is run- 
ning into a covered basin from 



cess of excavation by the University 
of Arizona. It is built against the 
face of a red clay bank, and the 
sim, from the west, shines directly 
on it. Mr. Cornwall points out the 
delicate patterning of the masonry 
walls - a layer of thick stone, 
finely matched, a layer of clay and 
then a layer of thin stones, all 
chosen with obvious care for sym- 
metry and color. A dozen or more 




The IECW Spring That Was Once A Bog, San Carlo: 



which human beings can drink. It 
runs, too, into a huge tank for 
the cattle* This tank has a barbed 
wire guard to keep the animals from 
stepping into it. The water is 
beautiful, clear and cold. 

"Four hundred and eighty gal- 
lons a day, * says Mr. Allen, knock- 
ing out his pipe. 

I cannot think of anything to 
say, so 1 ask him if he can spare 
a drink of water. 

We go on to Whiteriver, stop- 
ping, just about sundown, to look : 
at a prehistoric town now in pro- 



rooms have been uncovered. Every- 
where there are pieces of pottery - 
red and tan, black and white. I 
examine the shards and see the old- 
new designs, the traditional patterns 
Truly Indian country, when even the 
soil is full of their claims to it« 
In a bare field at San Carlos, I ■ 
had picked up the same sort of pieces 

August 6. Up into the Fort 
Apache Indian Resei-vation forests. 
Heavens, how beautiful these pine ; 
woods are. Here it is green. Here 
there has been no drought. Here 
there are streams with water in 
them and some springs, at least, 
that do not have to be developed. 



39 



89323 



Here, at the IECW camp where 
we lunch, is a spring that is too 
idyllic. It "bubbles up in a bower 
of wild flowers. It runs away 
through rich grass in a winding 
rill, diamond clear and silent i 
It is too perfect, like an over- 
ardent painting of still life. I 




Truck Trail Work, Port Apache 



am embarrassed, but Mr. Cornwall 
saves the day with the world's 
worst pun to date, ,r The flowers 
that bloom in the spring," he re- 
marks, with terrible pride. Let 
him deny it. 

This spring, with all its 
cleanliness, with its unspoiled 
wealth of grass and flowers, is 
still used, and used very practi- 
cally. It serves a campground 
for Indian cowboys working in the 
roundups. The ground adjoins it. 
It has recently been in use, but 
it too is beautifully clean. There 



is no trash, no litter, . And there 
are no signs* either, requesting 
campers not to leave trash or lit- 
ter. A rebuke to white picnickers! 

At the IECW camp where we eat 
lunch I get a professional thrill. 
The men are away at work, a hot 
lunch has been sent to them. Their 
tents are empty. Somewhat timidly 
we look inside and - on two cots are 
copies of INDIANS AT WORK. For my 
own part, if I lived in these for- 
ests, I doubt if I would bother to 
read anything. 

We go along an IECW trail under 
construction. We constantly meet 
Indian crews - jackhammer men, pow- 
der men, masons, laborers. Some of 
these men are Apaches, some Pimas. 
Group Foreman Tschantz rides with 
us and explains the niceties of 
each job. 

He shows me the work of one 
Indian boy whom he commends espe- 
cially. This is a culvert. The 
boy was trained in an Indian school, 
I know nothing of culverts, but I 
can feel purpose, despatch and 
intelligence in this job. How 
unfortunate that I am not a road 
engineer'* How unfortunate, for 
that matter, that I am not a 
teacher, a physician, a property 
administrator, a forester, a psy- 
sciatrist, a financial expert, an 
agriculturalist and some more 
things. I wonder if in any gov- 
ernment bureau there are to be 
found more phases of the New Deal, 
as it has come to be so conven- 
iently called, than in the Indian 
Service, where there are opportun- 
ities for rehabilitation along so 
many lines - human and property. 
That was an excellent culvert. 



40 



89323. 



V'e go on to Big Springs Family 
Camp v/here we find, only women and 
children. A pretty girl is filling 
her olla at the spring. She con- 
sents to "be our guide and "brings 
us into camp. She takes us to the 
wickiup home of Mrs. Rustin, where 
we meet three mothers. Ea.cn mother 
has a baby, e.n immeasurably grave, 
oriental-seemin & baby, one in arms 
asleep, a seconu. laced up in the 
Apache cradle and the third in its 
bath in a backet, but still grave 
and dignified - certainly a test of 
urbanity.. I try to learn the Apache 
word for cradle, but fail. Mrs. 
Baha, our glide, consents to let 
us take her picture. 

We go on - more I EC 1 .? road 
work, more Indian crews. A cat- 
erpillar is pulling a tree over. 
A tall Indian sts.nds, apart, lock- 
ing on. His round face is impass- 
ive. 'The tree rocks, the cater- 
pillar scuffles about and at last 
the tree falls. The radian throws 
out his hands and laughs. He looks 
like an Aztec carving. Later I an 
introduced to him - Chief Baha, 
Chief of the Apaches. 

August 7. With Forester 
Moffat, Mr. Cornwall and Mr. Larson 
to Odart Camp, through meadows of 
wild flowers, past a clear black 
lake ma.de by beavers. Mr. Moffat 
tells me that these little animals, 
knowing that drought wa.s coming, had 
widened their structure and had. 
gone upstream and raised two more 
dans. They too are saving water. 

Lunch at Odart Camp, an order- 
ly tent-village of single men, A- 



paches and Pimas. They have horse- 
shoe and volley ball courts. I 
doubt somehow that they spend much 
time reading 1 INDIANS AT WORK. 

On to the Maverick Lookout 
where we climb the eighty-foot 
IECW steel tower. Here we have a 




Apache Workman, 67 Years Old, Ft. Apache 

view - and what a Paradise this 
Apache land isl 

Then to Bonito Creek, to an- 
other IECW road camp, just in time 
for dinner. And then, back toward 
the Agency, just in time for our 
truck to bo washed away in the 
Seven Mile Canon. These cloud- 
bursts 1 So delightfully casual. 

Mr. Cornwall and Mr. Larson 
jump to safety. From the coupe on 
the other bank Mr. Moffat and I 
watch the truck turn over and bump 
downstream. This canon is only 



41 



89323 



a receptacle for the emptying 
heavens. Human beings in it are 
poor as drowning rats. We are 
"bounded by our car lights and 
rain. Then, after a while we 
hear someone approaching us. It 
is an Indian, riding his pony, 
riding without a coat, his little 




Mrs. Ernma Baha, Ft. Apache 

boy sticking on behind him. He 
goes by, turning to follow the 
creek, not attempting to ford. 
He does not speak to us; he looks 
to see who we are; that is all. 
Suddenly he is back again, like a 
phantom in our headlights. His 
face is full of imperative urgency. 
He points vividly down the creek. 

"Truck!" he shouts, "In wash! 
Where mans?" 

We try to convey to him that we 



know about the truck - that it is 
all right. He only repeats his ques- 
tion, his eyes burning in at us. 
"Where mane?" 

This time we make it clear that 
the men have gotten out - that they 
are not in danger. He turns his horse 
at once and vanishes. He is not in- 
terested new. The men are not in 
trouble. He does on to his farm, 
or maybe his camp or wickiup to 
live out this dreadful night. And 
two hours later we go on to the 
Agency. He will not remember us, 
certainly. But I remember him, 
phantom-like in our headlights, wet 
with rain, consumed with brief anx- 
iety for a fellow traveller, shout- 
ing, "Where mans?" 

I talk to Dean Gumming s of Ari- 
zona University, who is supervising 
excavations thereabouts. He says 
something that has long seemed 
of significance to me - no people 
have ever reached a social level 
comparable to that of the Indian 
without developing a written liter- 
ature. The Indians alone seem to 
have felt no need for ink; I think 
about that. There is something awe- 
inspiring about self-c oat ainment so 
profound that it has leaped over the 
desire to write things down. There 
have been no Indian scribblers! I 
cannot understand it. It is the 
rounding out of the circle, the ac- 
ceptance of life with such simplic- 
ity and such sophistication that 
the two are indistinguishable. 



42 



89323 



■ FROM IECW W3EK1Y REPORTS. 



Indians deve lop Sprigs At 
Walker River . A good siz-ed spring 
is "being boxed up with cement walls 
and piped into concrete troths for 
watering 750 head cattle now in 
lake pasture. The Indians with 
group foreman on job btu.lt forms 
and mixed concrete in wheel barrows 
and poured into two foot forms. 
Some difficulty was encountered in 
getting loads of gravel and sand to 
place by reason of soft ground. 
The lake shore is very boggy and 
hard for stock to get to water. 
Roy M. Madsen. 



Out Of The Clouds At Trust on 
Canon . The much need, and long looked 
for rains have gotten off to a pretty 
good start. We had a mighty good 
rain at camp last Thursday. All of 
the washes were running to their 
capacity. It looked as if the bot- 
tom fell out of every cloud. The 
rain started about twenty miles 
from' the camp, and one could see it 
progress rapidly towards the camp. 
Within fifteen minutes we were in • 
the midst of a real rain. However, 
the rain seemed to miss the tanks 
that water is needed in at the pres- 
ent time. But the rain was wel- 
comed just the same, even though it 
did soak everyone in the camp and 
the men out on the job. The men 
who were working near the camp came 
in looking like drowned rats. Rot 
coffee was served by our Indian- 
cook, Richard Fisher, and quite a 
time was held by the men talking 
over the excitement of the rain. 
The rain seems to be bringing up 
quite a bit of feed for the cattle. 
Charles Barn ard. 



Sports at Uintah and Ouray. 
This has been a good week for our , 
S.C.W. baseball team. On Sunday, 
the fifth, the Indians defeated 
the C.C.C. boys at the C.C.C. camp, 
with a score of 22-5; on Thursday, 
the ninth, the Indians again de- 
feated the C.C.C. boys, 8-4; and 
on Friday, the tenth, they won the 
championship game with My ton on a 
technical decision of the umpire, 
the My ton team quitting in the 
fifth inning, with the score 2-0. 
These last two games were played 
before crowds approximately 10,000 
at the Uintah Basin Industrial Con- 
vention at Fort Duchesne. JSharley 
J. lan ge r . 

Fighting Ihe Plant Pest at 
.Fort Yuma . Building contours for 
the flooding of Johnson grass in 
the eradication of same. Also dig- 
ging small infested places. John 
L. Black. 

Cooperation At. Hoopa Valley . 
We are using fresh fruit and vege- 
tables bought from the Indians of 
the Valley. John M. Lindly . 

Drift Fence At. Warm Springs . 
From the 30th of July to the third 
of August using 79 man days we com- 
pleted about 3/8 miles of drift 
fence which makes total amount fin- 
ished about 75$. Edward larsen . 

Precautions At. Flathead . Dur- 
ing the week the regular camp routine 
was carried out and work continued on 
truck trail construction. 



43 



89323 



One fire was reported just a- 
bove Hot Springs on the 31st. 
Twenty- five men from this camp an- 
swered this call and remained on 
scene of fire returning to camp at 
6 a.m. August 1. . . . 

On account of extreme dry . 
weather ton men are "being retained 
in camp to "bo available on instant 
notice in case of fire.. . Those men 
sharpen tools, cut wood, or other- - 
wise work around camp. 

Our first weekly meeting was 
held this week for the purpose of 
discussing publicly any matter 
that had to do with.- the improvement 
of camp or other conditions and to 
take up in open forum any matter 
that it was felt should be discussed. 
This opportunity each week for 
everyone to be heard and to make 
such suggestions they had to of- 
fer, as well as the social phase of 
these meetings, should prove very 
popular. Ger.rit .Smi th. 

Pour .teen Hours Withou t Relief 
At . P.o.cky £o,y's . About 4 a.m. on 
July 30 a fire was reported to the 
agency by one of the Indians. The 
fire was Ideated in Parker Canyon 
in Section 36. The fire had 
reached a size of approximately 6 
acres and was put under control by 
the. men available at the agency. 
Pour IECTT men were left to patrol. 
In the afternoon about 2 p.m. an 
exceptionally high wind started up 
and again the fire was reported out 
of control. The IPCW men working 
on. Trail ho. 1 were rushed to the 
scene of the fire and after con- 
siderable fighting it was put under 
control, about 6 p.m. in the even- 
ing. It burned over approximately 
60 acres of grass and brush land. 



The men from camp were called to 

the "fire in the evening and spent 
the night in putting out the re- 
maining spot fire and watching it „ 
until morning. The result was 
that one lays field work was sac- 
rificed in order to put out this 
fire. The attitude of the men is 
exceptionally good toward fire 
fighting; inasmuch as they did not 
complain about spending 14 hours 
on the fire line without relief. 
Britton C lair . 

P.ire Fightin g; And. Pun At 
Co.ly.i lie . The boys have been very 
busy with fires this last week. 
50 of the boys were called to sup- 
press a fire on the Spokane Reser- 
vation. They enjoyed the trip but 
were glad to return to tbBii* Twin 
Lakes Camp. There was a fire call 
at Rogers Par. 

There will be a dance at the 
Twin Lakes Hall Saturday and a big 
crowd is expected. 

The cooks at the Summit Camp 
have taken up wrestling as a side 
line. They seem to be very good. 

The first of the coming week 
we expect to have the largest por- 
tion of the men on the Summit 
Camp, as work on the Gold Mt. 
road will start. Barney Packard . 

' Mounted lire Patrol At Port 
B»l knap . Due to extreme dry 
weather we have put on four fire 
guards who cover the forest area 
daily on horseback. The patrol 
work is. greatly facilitated this 
year by the trails constructed 
through the mountains last season 
by the Emergency Conservation 
workers. One guard reports putting 



44 



89323 



out a dangerous camp fire left "by 
some careless camper. On their way 
through the mountains the guards 
stop and show ail tourists the cor- 
rect way to put out their fires and 
warn thera of the danger that can be 
caused "by their carelessness in 
this matter. Pre sto n Ring. 

G rasshoppers S pread jit port 
.Tot ten . Gras shoppers have spread 
from idle lands owned "by white 
people and are so large that they 
won't take the 'bait we have used. 
There are many good gardens and. as 
the grass and fields dry up, these 
hoppers move to green corn and 
gardens, so we are centering our 
work around these places as well as 
we can. 

Very hot weather lias slowed up 
cur road side clearing but the boys 
are doing very well. Later in the 
season it will be necessary to go 
over these roads once more, but we 
will get most of the weeds before 
they seed at this time. 

Report completed is on one 
time over the project. Report on 
whole project would be just one 
half. 

On the grasshopper work, we 
have covered practically all the a- 
rea two times. This leaves about 
11$ of the project to be covered 
once more. T7e have enough arsenic 
bait to work three days more. More 
is available as the farmers don't 
want to use any more. They are not- 
satisfied with this bait. They 
waited too long and refused to 
spread the bait on the egg beds be- 
fore the hoppers became big enough 
to spread. Edwin C_. Losby . 



Gomes J£ Yakima . Camp three 
played host to both Signal Poak and 
Camp Pour last weekend. Camp Pour 
came down and defeated us in a 
closely contested soft ball game. 

Signal Peak not only ployed us 
a game of soft ball but also en- 
joyed our swimming pool. They had 
their picnic there and then a number 
of Camp Three boys challenged them 
to a game of water head- tag. An ex- 
cellent outing was had by everyone. 
Jul ian .Smith . 

Running Smoo thly At CJiexejme 
And Arapaho . Work is progressing' 
very nicely at this camp in spite 
of the extremely hot and dry weather. 
Under authority from the Indian Of- 
fice a sub-foreman has been appoint- 
ed who has previously been a laborer 
and leader on conservation work and 
is experienced in this type of work. 
?fe expect to have everything running 
smoothly and good v/ork done on pro- 
jects where this work was dropped 
last March, in order for the men to 
return to their homes and farm. Due 
to the drought and extremely hot 
weather very little benefit was re- 
ceived from farm work this year. 
This work is proving to be the only 
means of many of the Indians on this 
reservation making a living for 
their families. D. W. Hamilton . 

Unki nd Umpire At S outhern lava j o . 
Our call team got beat last Sunday 
by Winslow. They are going to play 
them again. The umpire won the 
game this time. Our boys had them 
beat five to nothing up to the sixth 
inning, then the umpire won. Our 
ball team went to Phoenix yester- 
day to play in a tournament. If 
they have good luck playing ball 
they will be gone all week. Ben 
Ear di son. 



45 



30323 



in places where levees empty into 
the main water course. These cacti 
serve a dual purpose by retaining 
more water and allowing it to soak 
into the ground as well a? reduce 
erosion to a minimum. - 

The 100 feet of rip-rap .men- 
tiened is a water break in the main 
water course to protect some 300 
cactus transplanting? from being 
damaged by flood waters. Fran]: H. 
Kiggins , Jr . 

********** 

FIR5 FIGIITIITG FJDIANS 

The following letter from Carl B. Veal, Forest Supervisor 
of the Deschutes National Forest, to Pat Gray, Forest Supervisor of 
the Warm Springs Reservation, speaks volumes in praise of the fire- 
fighting ability of the Warm Springs Indian boys: 

"I was very pleased to got Mr. Clark's gratifying report 
on the well organized crew of Indian boys who helped him on the 
west ond of the ?ly Creek fire. 

"He stated that the fine spirit of cooperation and com- 
plete organization of crews leaves nothing more to be desired of 
them as a fire fighting organization and that their work and di- 
recting personnel was equal to that of any crew he had ever wit- 
nessed on the fire line. 

"Although this fire was not directly the responsibility 
of the Deschutes, I want to thank you for the fine cooperation 
you gave in bringing it under control and to congratulate you on 
the fire organization you have builded with your Indian boys." 

46 



They all Realize At Zuni. 
Building dams with brush and rock. • 
I'm very glad to say that all of my 
men now realize how to build the 
dams with brush and rocks. By work- 
ing with them in every week I'm do- 
ing so fine and my men are the same 
way too. H en ry Hatewa . 

Cactus Serves Dual P urp o s e At 
Sells. There has been 300 trans- 
plantings of cactus (opuntia haevis) 



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